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Internal Combustion Engines by Domkundwar.pdf: A Practical Guide to Design, Performance, and Emissions


Internal Combustion Engines by Domkundwar.pdf: A Comprehensive Guide




Introduction




Internal combustion engines (ICEs) are devices that convert chemical energy stored in fuels into mechanical work by burning them inside a chamber. They are widely used in various applications such as automobiles, aircraft, marine vessels, power generation, and industrial machinery.




Internal Combustion Engine By Domkundwar.pdf



There are many types and components of internal combustion engines, each with its own characteristics and functions. The main types of internal combustion engines are based on the cycle, fuel, ignition, arrangement, cooling, and application. The main components of internal combustion engines are the cylinder, piston, crankshaft, connecting rod, valve, spark plug, injector, etc.


The main principles and processes of internal combustion engines are the intake, compression, power, and exhaust strokes. These four strokes complete one cycle of the engine operation. During the intake stroke, the air-fuel mixture or air is drawn into the cylinder. During the compression stroke, the air-fuel mixture or air is compressed by the piston. During the power stroke, the compressed air-fuel mixture is ignited by the spark plug or by the high temperature and pressure of the air, and the combustion produces high-pressure gas that pushes the piston down. During the exhaust stroke, the burned gas is expelled from the cylinder through the exhaust valve.


Classification of Internal Combustion Engines




Internal combustion engines can be classified according to different criteria such as cycle, fuel, ignition, arrangement, cooling, and application. The following table summarizes some of the main types of internal combustion engines based on these criteria.


Criterion Type Description --- --- --- Cycle Two stroke The engine completes one cycle in two strokes or one revolution of the crankshaft Four stroke The engine completes one cycle in four strokes or two revolutions of the crankshaft Fuel Petrol The engine uses petrol or gasoline as fuel and operates on the Otto cycle Diesel The engine uses diesel as fuel and operates on the Diesel cycle Dual fuel The engine uses a combination of two fuels such as petrol and gas or diesel and gas Biofuel The engine uses biofuels such as ethanol, biodiesel, biogas, etc. as fuel or blended with conventional fuels Ignition Spark ignition (SI) The engine uses a spark plug to ignite the air-fuel mixture in the cylinder Compression ignition (CI) The engine uses the high temperature and pressure of the compressed air to ignite the fuel injected into the cylinder Arrangement Inline The engine has cylinders arranged in a single row along the crankshaft V-type The engine has cylinders arranged in two rows forming a V-shape along the crankshaft W-type The engine has cylinders arranged in three rows forming a W-shape along the crankshaft Radial The engine has cylinders arranged in a circular pattern around the crankshaft Rotary The engine has a triangular rotor that rotates inside a housing instead of pistons and cylinders Cooling Air-cooled The engine uses air to cool the cylinders and other components Water-cooled The engine uses water or coolant to cool the cylinders and other components through a radiator Application Automobile The engine is used to power cars, trucks, buses, motorcycles, etc. Aircraft The engine is used to power airplanes, helicopters, drones, etc. Marine The engine is used to power boats, ships, submarines, etc. Power generation The engine is used to generate electricity for various purposes Industrial machinery The engine is used to drive pumps, compressors, generators, etc. Each type of internal combustion engine has its own advantages and disadvantages in terms of performance, efficiency, emissions, cost, maintenance, etc. For example, two stroke engines have higher power-to-weight ratio, simpler design, and lower cost than four stroke engines, but they also have lower efficiency, higher emissions, and shorter lifespan. Similarly, spark ignition engines have higher power output, smoother operation, and lower noise than compression ignition engines, but they also have lower efficiency, higher fuel consumption, and higher tendency to knock.


Components of Internal Combustion Engines




Internal combustion engines have many components that perform different functions and work together to produce mechanical work from chemical energy. The following are some of the main components of internal combustion engines and their functions.


  • Cylinder: It is a cylindrical chamber where the air-fuel mixture or air is compressed and burned to produce high-pressure gas that pushes the piston.



  • Piston: It is a cylindrical part that moves up and down inside the cylinder due to the pressure difference between the combustion chamber and the crankcase.



  • Crankshaft: It is a shaft that converts the reciprocating motion of the piston into rotary motion that drives the output shaft or flywheel.



Connecting rod: It is a rod that connects the piston to the crank 71b2f0854b


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